JOB EVALUATION MANUAL - Introduction

This Job Evaluation Manual, which is a supplement to the Laurentian University/Laurentian University Staff Association Collective Agreement, has been written for the use of the Joint Job Evaluation Committee (JJEC) in evaluating positions in the LUSA Bargaining Unit according to the Joint Job Evaluation System implemented at Laurentian University effective July l, l986.

Users of this Manual should also refer to the Handbook issued as a supplement to the LU/LUSA Collective Agreement.

Following the implementation of the Joint Job Evaluation System, there is a need for ongoing JJEC activities to evaluate new and changing positions, and, to ensure the maintenance of the system. Reference must be made to the Handbook, for the administrative structure regarding maintenance aspects.

The J.J.E.C. must recognize the subjective nature of job evaluation and the judgement which individual members will be called to make. These judgments will be made in good faith and within the framework of the system of job evaluation. To do so, users of this manual should be thoroughly familiar with the contents of the Manual as well as those of the Handbook. A sound understanding of the factors and degrees outlined is required.

Jobs will be evaluated on the basis of the work normally and regularly required from an employee. In every case, it is the position that is evaluated and the existing salary or personal qualifications of the incumbent should not be allowed to influence the rating.

When allocating a point values to a position, the committee will be guided by the principle of best fit - this means that the individual committee member will decide which definition of a particular degree appears to fit best in its entirety, to all activities undertaken by the incumbent.

The documentation upon which the committee will base its evaluation of the position will be provided in accordance with the Handbook. This includes the Position Questionnaire, the Job Description and any other pertinent information. The Job Description will reflect work normally and regularly required from the incumbent, providing an understanding of the essential activities carried out by him/her. The documentation will not describe in detail all tasks and activities, particularly when such tasks are subsumed/implied by other tasks.

The process of evaluating a position has three steps:

l)  the position is assessed using the factors and degrees contained in the Job Evaluation Manual
2)   the position is assessed against other positions assigned to the same or adjacent factor degree levels
3)   the resultant salary grade for the position is compared with the salary grade for other positions

In reviewing factor and degree definitions to determine the degree to be assigned to a position, reference may, in particular, be made to the positions referenced at particular degree levels, in the Manual and the Raters' Notes relating to them.





SUMMARY OF FACTORS AND POINT ALLOCATIONS
JOB EVALUATION MANUAL

FACTORS:

CONDITIONS:Points
WORKING CONDITIONS30
PHYSICAL DEMANDS 30
MENTAL FATIGUE 40
   Sub-Total: 100

Complexity:
PROBLEM SOLVING 100
DECISION MAKING 200
   Sub-Total: 300

Responsibility:
CONSEQUENCE OF ERROR110
SUPERVISION & OTHER GUIDANCE RECEIVED110
RESPONSIBILITY FOR GUIDANCE OF OTHERS80
   Sub-Total: 300
Competence:
NUMERICAL COMPUTATIONS25
COMPREHENSION25
EXPRESSION25
BILINGUALISM25
EDUCATION AND TRAINING100
EXPERIENCE100
   Sub-Total: 300

OVERALL TOTAL POINT BASE: 1000

WORKING CONDITIONS

This factor measures the physical surroundings and the potential hazards with which jobs are performed. It considers the unpleasantness of conditions surrounding the job and health and accident hazards associated with the work; which cannot be eliminated from the job. (Example of unpleasant conditions surrounding the job: Heat or cold, noise, fumes, dust, dirt, lighting, inclement weather.)


Questions: #3 Working Conditions
#4 Hazards
DegreesPoints
1.None. 0
Job requires practically no exposure to undesirable conditions and minor risks.
2.Occasional. 5
Job requires occasional exposure to undesirable conditions and minor risks.
3.Moderate - one element. 10
Job requires occasional exposure to undesirable conditions and moderate risks. OR Job requires moderate exposure to undesirable conditions and everyday risks.
4.Moderate - both elements. 20
Job requires moderate exposure to undesirable conditions and moderate risks.
5.Frequent. 30
Job requires frequent exposure to major undesirable conditions or significant risks.


PHYSICAL DEMANDS

This factor is the physical effort required by the job measured by its nature and frequency.

Questions: #5 Physical Demands

DegreesPoints
1.Normal. 0
Normal effort or occasional periods of light physical activity.
2.Occasional moderate. 5
Occasional moderate effort or frequent periods of light physical activity.
10
3.Frequent moderate. 15
Frequent moderate effort or almost continuous periods of light physical activity or occasional heavy physical activity.
4.Continuous moderate. 30
Almost continuous moderate effort or frequent heavy physical activity.

MENTAL FATIGUE

This factor measures the degree of concentration, either to minute job details or to the many tasks of the job, as well as the pace the employee must maintain.

Consider whether a large volume of work must be completed within a specified limited time.  Must attention be shifted frequently from one to another job detail?  Are there interruptions, distractions or confusing influences?

Questions:#6 Pressure of Work
#2.2 Most difficult duty?
#2.4 Unscheduled work?
DegreesPoints
1.Intermittent.5
Flow of work or character of duties are intermittent and require close attention only at intervals
2.Moderate.10
Flow of work and character of duties involve steady repetitive or moderate mental attention where occasional pressure exists.
15
3.Significant.25
Requires close concentration most of the time, but there are occasional periods when pressure is reduced. During these periods, there is still work to be done.
4.Substantial.40
Requires almost constant concentration to a heavy workload, which must be completed within a limited period of time.

PROBLEM SOLVING

This factor measures the relative difficulty of solution of work problems. A position holder solves problems when there is uncertainty about action which must be taken. Problem solving is thus the reasoning process which precedes a decision.

Problem solving can be measured in terms of three dimensions:

- the context of the work done and within which a problem is encountered

- the data which is used to identify a problem and work out a solution

- the method of analysis which is used to solve the problem and which can be demonstrated to others.

Questions: #7.1 Typical problems you face
#7.2 Two most difficult problems described
#1 Summary
#2.2 Most difficult duty
WORK DATA USED ANALYSIS POINTS
CHARACTERISTICS
1.Work procedures
laid down.
Routine tasks.
Well defined
instructions.
Few - all
known quantities.
Simple.
Solutions are
easily demonstrated,
easily defended.
2
4
7
10



2.Standardized
work - all
procedures have
been clearly
set out. Slight
modification
allowed. Within
narrow limits of
accuracy or
quality.

Some known.
Few unknown
Not too
difficult.
Usually easily
demonstrated
or defended.
15

20

25

30
3.Diverse tasks.
Procedures set
in a general way
Refers to
precedent -
past practice.
Numerous
known.
Few unknown
Moderately
difficult to
defend, because
several
solutions are
possible.
Interprets, applies
precedent to novel
situations.

35

40

45

50

4.Diverse and
complex tasks.
Some new and
unique - beyond
scope of past
precedent
Develops new
methods of work.
Interprets
instructions,
policies.

Numerous
unknown
items of
data.
Difficult.
Develops new
solutions or
new ways of
solving old
problems.
55

60

65

70

5.Innovative.
Faces new
constantly changing
conditions and
new problems.
Policy
implementation.
Many
complex
unknown
items of
data.
Highly difficult.
High calibre
judgement.
Has to define
problems, establish
evaluative criteria.
Analysis highly
complex. New
techniques
to solve
problems are
developed.
75

80

90

100

DECISION MAKING

Decision making involves the exercise of a CHOICE between alternative lines of action. This choice is the central point of decision making. It is based on a judgement - varying in complexity - which the person doing the job (the incumbent) is expected to make.

Questions:7.2 Two most difficult problems - decisions
1 Summary
2.2 Most difficult duty
2.4 Scheduling work
2.6 Most difficult to learn
DegreesPoints
1.Simplest of decisions.
Compares against rough standards with   
broad limits - Alternative lines of
action - simple and limited.  Brief
induction to learn essentials of the job.

4
8
12
16
2.Simple decisions requiring a little know-how.
Needs to take into account a few simple facts
- applies one or two checks;
action simple in essence but requires
a modicum of know-how.
20
24
28
32
 
3.Simple decisions based on categorized data.
Data needed for decisions is
categorized arbitrarily and simply -
no concern with whys and wherefores -
restricted use of verbal material.
36
40
44
48
 
4.Decisions requiring broad estimates.
Estimates involve limits which cannot
be stated precisely, but which are
quickly derived.
Critical information may have to be
found through a small number of
checks, by using a set of simple tools
or techniques. Needs to know the
consequence of a poor estimate - shows
limited concern in whys and wherefores.
52

56

60

64
 
5.Simple and varied decisions.
Simple decisions taken in a wider set
of circumstances - each situation
requires its own type of simple decision
A number of broad estimates,some require
superficial appreciation of how people
act. Planning at the elementary level
hardly goes beyond the current day. Use
of simple forms and checklists -
limited trial and error to find cause
of events.
68

72

76

80
 
6.Decisions requiring the co-ordination
of data.
Varied input of data, making co-
ordination necessary - e.g.operating a
motor vehicle, abstracting, summarizing
from prime documents. Simple chains of
decision making - a decision generates
information which is built into
subsequent decisions.
Limited interpretation of straight
forward guidelines.
84

88

92

96
 
7.Decisions which follow from a reasoned
estimate.
Has, as a rule, more information than
needed: must become selective before
reasoning to an estimate.
Specific instances:
a) Reasoning in two stages:
i) reasons out how to categorize data
ii) uses categorized data for final
estimate.
b) Uses incomplete information -
possible, however, to get additional
information, within a brief period
of time.
c) Developing operating procedures
which involve junior employees.
100


104


112
 
8.Decisions requiring practical know-how.
Reasoned estimates are quite complex-
they go to form an assessment. Needs
to spot critical cues - their meaning
is extended by practical experience
i.e. rule of thumb, what happens in
practice.
Understanding of principles as they
apply to concrete situations.
Action which follows a decision is
complex, requiring a series of
subsequent decisions.  The need to take
subsequent decisions may be anticipated,
however,and so lead to the first stages
of definite planning. Some decisions
need to be taken in a context of
uncertainty, which lasts a couple of
days.
116


120


124


128
 
9.Decisions involving systematic searches.
Decisions typified by a systematic
search for cause of events from a
limited number of variables. Area of
search and search strategy determined
by verbal reports which decision maker
interprets.  Decisions are taken
sequentially-in the form of a decision
tree. Decision and the action which
follows-characterized by:
a) pre-planning activities - mentally
recapitulate a complex line of
activities, prepare for further
decisions and actions reasoned in
advance.
b) the use of elementary principles
which have been systematically or
scientifically derived.
c) the exercise of definite technical
skills i.e. the use of tools or
techniques requiring special knacks
and training.
132


136


140


146
 
10.Intricate decisions based on study of
the interplay of variables.
Solving problem requires some experi-
mentation with known variables - facts
are not readily apparent.
The experience for these decision is
extensive, and needs to be co-ordinated
through additional principles which have
been scientifically derived i.e. some
concern with the theory of the occupa-
tion. The implication of a decision not
readily seen-others who operate indepen-
dently are involved.
PERIOD OF DISCRETION - 2 MONTHS.
Characteristics of these decisions:
a)the evaluation of systematic searches
conducted by subordinates but which have
failed to reveal the cause of events.
b)experimentation under guidance with
some of the variables-or a more exten-
sive and probing search for cause of
events.
c)pre-planning activities involving in
part the work of others extending for a
period of up to two months.e.g.estima-
ting the needs of a department for a
period of two months-assumptions have to
be made on past records or performance.
150


154


160


164
 
11.Complex decisions involving self-reliance.
Although decisions are backstopped,
decision maker relies on this minimally
and acts alone.  Decisions are reasoned
to their logical conclusion against
unclear precedent. May have to draw
fresh analogies from past experience to
present situation.  Semi-professional
training and the expertise to act inde-
pendently in situations which require
some initiative.
PERIOD OF DISCRETION - 6 MONTHS.
168


172


176


180
 
12.Complex decisions based on remote information.
Decision requires the coordination of
information from a wide variety of
related and unrelated sources - novel
methods of fact finding may have to be
devised. Decision based on complex
incomplete information because there
are gaps in human knowledge.
Decision maker accepts the need to take
risks e.g.in the manner inferences are
drawn, objectives reached, and because
there are no clear cut directives or
precedent.
PERIOD OF DISCRETION - 1 YEAR TO 15
MONTHS.
185


190


195


200
 

CONSEQUENCE OF ERROR

This factor measures the effects of inaccuracy and poor conclusions and decisions. It considers the probable human and material resource consequences of errors that are probable , rather than remotely possible.

Questions:#8 Consequence of errors
DegreesPoints
1.Inconsequential.
Correction of errors would require no more than a
few hours of the employee's own time, or of other
employees' time; or cause an insignificant monetary
loss.
0
5
10
 
2.Minor.
Correction of errors would involve only the
employee's own time or a minor amount of the time
of other employees and relatively minor expense
for correction; or cause relatively minor
monetary loss.
15
20
30
40
 
3.Moderate.
Correction of errors would involve some inter-
ruption and loss of time to other employees and
work groups, and some expense for correction; or
cause some financial loss; or have some adverse
effect on public or employee relations.
50
60
65
75
 
4.Substantial.
Correction of errors would involve considerable
confusion, interruption and loss of time to other
employees and work groups and considerable
expense for correction; or cause considerable
financial loss; or have considerable adverse
effect on public or employee relations.
80
90
100
110
 

SUPERVISION & OTHER GUIDANCE RECEIVED

To identify the type of control under which the job operates.
Reflects the type of direction and control received from
personal supervision, set procedures, operational manuals, etc..

Questions:#9 Review of work
#9.1 What do you refer to your supervisor?
#9.2 Who else supervises you?
#9.3 How?
#9.4 How?
#2.3 Duties scheduled?
#2.5 Guided by manuals?
DegreesPoints
1.Direct.
Direct and detailed instructions;
close supervision;
supervisor resolves problems not covered by
instructions;
no or minimal discretion delegated.
0

5

10
 
2.Specific.
Specific direction and instructions on problems
where standard procedures not applicable;
close supervision;
supervisor resolves problems not covered by
instructions;
details of instruction application left to
discretion of employee.
15

20

25

30
 
3.General.
General direction on problems where standard
procedures not applicable;
supervision on progress and results at signifi-
cant stages of work progress;
unusual problems referred to supervisor;
other details left to the discretion of the
employee, fairly independent.
35

40

45

50
 
4.Broad, procedures established.
Broad guidelines on results to be achieved where
procedures governed by well defined policy;
reference to supervisor should be infrequent and
only for clarification of policy or guidelines,
supervisor performs occasional checks only;
work is done independently and details are left
to discretion of the employee.
58

65

72

80
 
5.Broad, procedures not established.
Broad guidelines on results to be achieved where
procedures are not established;
consults with supervisor infrequently, virtually
self-supervising;
work is done independently.
88

96

104

110
 

RESPONSIBILITY FOR GUIDANCE OF OTHERS

This factor measures the degree to which the employee assigns tasks to others, outlines methods they are to follow, checks the progress of their assignments, and corrects errors.  Employee usually works with and guides other employees in his/her area.

Questions:#10 Work direction.
#10.1 Do you give guidance to anyone?
#10.2 Who? How much?
DegreesPoints
1.None.
No direction or guidance of others; may
occasionally show another employee how to
perform a task.
0

5

10
 
2.Periodic.
The job requires the employee to periodically
assume responsibilities for direction of other
employees, such as work assignment, checking of
and work instructions.
15

20

25

30
 
3.Frequent.
The job requires the employee to frequently
assume responsibilities for direction of other
employees, such as work assignment, checking of
work and work instructions.
35

40

45

50
 
4.Continuous.
The job requires the employee, on a continuous
basis, to assume responsibilities for direction
of other employees, such as work assignment,
checking of work and work instructions.
55

65

70

80
 

NUMERICAL COMPUTATIONS

Mathematical development in terms of calculations performed and interpretations rendered.

Questions:#11
DegreesPoints
1.Perform simple addition and subtraction, reading
and copying of figures, counting and recording,
placing in numerical sequence.
3
 
2.Use elementary arithmetic to add, subtract,
multiply and divide whole numbers.
6
 
3.Make arithmetic calculations involving fractions,
decimals, percentages, use simple formulae such as
basic reconciliations, distinguish different kinds
of measures such as weights, fluids, resistance
and voltage.
9
 
4.Use of mathematical formulae, tables, equations
such as compound rates, annuities, complex
reconciliations.
12
 
5.Use and interpretation of different complex
calculations and formulae, applying knowledge of
advanced mathematical and statistical techniques;
definite variety; interpretation of results quite
involved.
18
 
6.Work with a wide variety of theoretical
mathematical concepts making original
applications of mathematical procedures and
analyzing failures in current procedures.
  Interpretation of probablistic calculations.
25
 

COMPREHENSION

Comprehension means understanding of verbal material, i.e. spoken or written. Comprehension is measured by examining the complexity of statements, special terminology which may be used, breadth and depth of meanings and particular inferences which need to be drawn.

Questions:#12
DegreesPoints
1.Simple day-to-day language.
-few technical terms
-communication largely spoken
-tasks involved are relatively simple
3
 
2.Varied but simple language.
-a larger number of technical terms are used
-simple messages need to be written down
-communications vary in content as number of
tasks increase: may have to use standard forms,
scan opened mail, and summarize verbal messages
6
 
3.Communications based on internal documents
e.g. reports, manuals, regulations.
-communications remain simple - their under-
standing implies some on the job training
-material to be read is essentially procedural,
and scope restricted to a limited number of
activities
9
 
4.Communications involving a specific terminology,
e.g.legal, accounting.
-communication requires specialized understanding
of an area of operation
-precise action or particular attention to detail
is necessary, e.g. have the documents been
processed correctly, have we obtained the
required validations
12
 
5.Communications based on knowledge of varied but
related terminology.
-varied terminology acquired through experience
in a number of activities outside the specialty
of one's function
16
 
6.Communications using abstract terminology which
has developed in a profession.
-can handle with ease, high level abstractions
which are the hallmark of professional training
-able to understand complex instructions and
interpret to others the more difficult and
obscure passages
20
 
7.Critical evaluation of professional communications.
-can read critically advanced publications,
evaluate them and translate them into specific
activities others will carry out, or simpler
documents others will understand
-reads in fields outside own professional
competence and relates such knowledge to own
particular activities or the activities of
one's own subordinates
25
 

EXPRESSION

Expression is measured by the most complex feedback given by the position holder to others, and may involve terminology varying in complexity, an awareness that others understand you correctly, and the modification or simplification of source information.

Questions:#13
DegreesPoints
1.Simple feedback in day to day language.
-short sentences describing operating conditions
-writing done at a relatively simple level, e.g.
phone messages
3
 
2.Simple and varied feedback.
-feedback varied in content, using some technical
terms but related to day to day occurrences
-writing may involve the completion of forms or
the preparation of simple documents
6
 
3.Feedback related to internal documents.
-feedback requiring experience with a variety of
internal documents
-may have to summarize essential information,
from varied activities
9
 
4.Feedback involving a specific terminology, e.g.
legal, accounting.
-familiarity with manuals, standing instructions
and written procedures
-conveys the results of a specific search or else
articulates specific questions which obtain
additional information
12
 
5.Feedback involving varied but related terminology.
-feedback goes beyond one's area of specialized
training, or to function outside one's own area,
bridging work done in one department to another
16
 
6.Feedback using abstract terminology which has
developed in a profession.
-feedback involves high level abstractions which
are the hallmark of professional training
-draft explanatory memoranda and instructions
20
 
7.Feedback involving critical evaluation within the
ambit of a profession.
-evaluates new trends and ideas
-explains in simple, concise terms what may in
fact be complex and highly abstract
25
 

BILINGUALISM

This factor reflects the degree, if any, of knowledge of French and English required.

Questions:#14
DegreesPoints
1.Not necessary.
0
 
2.Desirable,only. 5
 
3.Essential.
Individual aspects: i)must understand clearly documents
written in both official languages

ii) must understand clearly when people
speak in both official languages

iii) must speak clearly to people in both
official languages

iv) must write clearly, independently, in
both official languages


Examples
A - if 3i) ii) iii) are indicated, calculation
is 5+5x3 = 20

B - if 3i ii) are indicated, calculation is
5+5x2 = l5

Note: Samples of written materials must be
submitted for items 3i) and 3iv)
5



5


5


5



Maximum
total
possible

25
 

EDUCATION AND TRAINING

This factor is the formal education and training which is required to obtain the knowledge necessary to satisfactorily perform the duties of the position. These requisites may be the result of formal education or independent study.

Questions: #17.1 Formal Education
#17.4 Explain
DegreesPoints
1.Grade X
10
 
2.Grade XII
25
 
3.Grade XII plus one year of concentrated study

Includes Grade XIII, or Grade XII, plus one year
one year university, college or technical school
40
 
4.Grade XII plus two years of concentrated study

Includes Grade XIII plus one year university,
college or technical school
55
 
5.Grade XII plus three years of concentrated study

Includes Grade XIII plus two years college,
university or technical school
70
 
6.Grade XIII plus three years of concentrated study

85
 
7.Grade XIII plus four years of concentrated study

Honours degree programs or greater
100
 

Note A *Concentrated study means continual daytime instruction and /or study, or its equivalent in continuing education programs (night classes, correspondence courses); such as provided in normal Secondary, Technical, College or University training.*

B - Specialized training should be equated to additional university, college or technical school training as appropriate.


EXPERIENCE

This factor measures the amount of practical experience that an individual having the appropriate education and training, would require to satisfactorily perform the duties of the position.  It refers to experience on related work and is in addition to the desired formal education and relevant training which is required. It covers the time required to learn the practical application of theoretical knowledge to the work problems, and to learn the necessary techniques, methods, practices, procedures, use of forms, etc..

Questions:#17.2 Additional training
#17.3 Work related experience
#17.4 Explain
DegreesPoints
1.No previous experience required.
8
 
2.Less than six (6) months.
16
 
3.Six (6) months up to and including one (1) year.
24
 
4.Over one (1) year, up to and including two (2)
years.
32
 
5.Over two (2) years, up to and including three (3)
years.
40
 
6.Over three (3) years, up to and including four
(4) years.
48
 
7.Over four (4) years, up to and including five (5)
years.
56
 
8.Over five (5) years, up to and including six (6)
years.
64
 
9.Over six (6) years, up to and including seven (7)
years.
72
 
10.Over seven (7) years, up to and including eight
(8) years.
80
 
11.Over eight (8) years, up to and including nine
(9) years.
88
 
12.Over nine (9) years, up to and including ten
(10) years.
96
 
13.Over ten (10) years.
100
 


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